Gradle, just like any other Java application, can open up arbitrary network connections and initiate downloads and uploads. That is scary as it creates risks for your local/CI machines and could also affect artifacts you ship to your customers. In my post on Gradle Security Considerations several of the steps help by giving you higher confidence that Gradle executable and all the dependencies have not been modified. However, that doesn’t prevent Gradle plugins and invoked tools from intentionally or unintentionally fetching from the network.
One way to stop Gradle from using the network is to use
--offline flag. This requires your entire build to be completely local
including having all of your maven dependencies pre-downloaded (e.g. in git).
This setup is quite painful to manage and thus doesn’t work for everyone.
--offline is merely a hint therefore plugins can still ignore it.
For example, Android Lint tasks were accidentally downloading files when running one
of the checks.
Similarly, Robolectric fetches Android system images on the first run
(but you can disable it
if you point it to your own local repository).
Luckily, there is a better solution for containing Gradle - nsjail. It is a general tool that can sandbox processes on Linux. nsjail can be used to limit Gradle to only be able to access the network in a way that you expect. You can list all of your maven repositories, remote build cache server and any other resources to enforce that your build can pass without any other access. AndroidX has been using nsjail as part of the Kotlin Native builds exploration to ensure that it doesn’t download arbitrary executables without going through Gradle (it currently does). There are more options listed at nsjail.dev.